MEREDITH D.A. HOWARD – Biological Oceanographer


EDUCATION:

Ph.D., Ocean Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, 2007

B.S., Biology, Rutgers University, 2001

B.A., Finance, Lehigh University, 1995

AREAS OF EXPERTISE:

Dr. Howard is a biological oceanographer specializing in the ecology and physiology of phytoplankton, including harmful algal blooms (HABs). Dr. Howard's current research is focused on examining the environmental factors that influence phytoplankton blooms, including harmful algal blooms, particularly with respect to nutrient sources that lead to the development and maintenance of algal blooms. Her research also focuses on evaluation of  the extent of cyanobacteria presence and toxin production in a variety of southern California estuaries, streams and other freshwater habitats. She serves on two State committees for HABs in California, the California Harmful Algal Boom Monitoring and Alert Program (HABMAP) and is the Co-Chair of the California Cyanobacteria and Harmful Algal Bloom Network (CCHABs).

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:

Senior Scientist, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA. 2013-Present

Scientist, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA. 2009-2013

Visiting Scientist, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. 2009-2010

Post-Doctoral Research Associate, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project and University of Southern California. Costa Mesa, CA and Los Angeles, CA. 2007-2008

Graduate Research Assistant, Ocean Science Department, University of California, Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz, CA. 2001-2007

Teaching Assistant, “Life in the Sea”, Ocean Science Department, University of California, Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz, CA. 2001, 2003

Guest Lecturer, “Chemical Oceanography”, University of California, Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz, CA. 2005

Guest Lecturer, “Ocean Processes”, University of California, Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz, CA. 2004

Guest Lecturer, “World’s Oceans”, University of California, Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz, CA. 2004

Treasurer, Graduate Student Association, University of California, Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz, CA. 2004-2005

Ocean Science Board Representative, Graduate Student Association, University of California, Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz, CA. 2001-2005

PROFESSIONAL APPOINTMENTS:

Bight'13 Nutrients Committee, Co-Chair

California Cyanobacteria and Harmful Algal Blooms Network, Co-Chair

Bight’08 Offshore Water Quality Committee, Co-Chair

California Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Alert Program, Steering Committee Secretary

HONORS AND AWARDS:

Marilyn C. Davis Memorial Scholarship (2005)

Coastal Environmental Quality Initiative Graduate Student Fellowship (2005)

Ocean Science Outstanding Student Achievement Award (2004)

Ida Benson Lynn Fellowship (2004)

Sea Grant Rapid Response Grant (2004)

Ocean Science Outstanding Teaching Assistant Nominee

Ocean Science Research and Travel Award (2002, 2003)

Earl and Ethyl Myers Trust Grant (2001)

STARS Scholarship (2001)

Marine and Coastal Sciences Summer Internship Award (2000)

Golden Key National Honor Society

Alpha Sigma Lamda National Honor Society

PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES:

The Oceanography Society (2001-Present)

American Society Limnology and Oceanography (2001-Present)

American Geophysical Union (2001-2007)

PUBLICATIONS:

Brooks, B. W., J. Lazorchak, M.D.A. Howard, M.V. Johnson, S. Morton, D. Perkins, E. Reavie, G. Scott, S. Smith, J. Steevens, Jeffery. Are Harmful Algal Blooms Becoming the Greatest Inland Water Quality Threat to Public Health and Aquatic Ecosystems? Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 35(1) 6-13.

Howard, M.D.A., R.M. Kudela, K. McLaughlin. New insights into impacts of anthropogenic nutrients on urban ecosystem processes on the Southern California coastal shelf: Introduction and synthesis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, in press.

Kudela, R.M., A.J. Lucas, K. Hayashi, M. Howard, K. McLaughlin. Death from below: Investigation of inhibitory factors in bloom development during a wastewater effluent diversion. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, in press.

Caron, D.A., A.G. Gellene, J. Smith, E.L. Seubert, V. Campbell, G.S. Sukhatme, B. Seegers, B. H. Jones, A.A.Y. Lie, R. Terrado, M.D.A. Howard, R.M. Kudela, K. Hayashi, J. Ryan, J. Birch, E. Demir-Hilton, K. Yamahara, C. Scholin, M. Mengel, G.

Robertson. Response of phytoplankton and bacterial biomass during a wastewater effluent diversion into nearshore coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, in press.

McLaughlin, K., N.P. Nezlin, M.D.A. Howard, C.D.A. Beck, R.M. Kudela, M.J. Mengel, G.L. Robertson. Rapid nitrification of wastewater ammonium near coastal ocean outfalls, Southern California, USA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, in press.

Kudela, R.M., M.D.A. Howard, K. Hayashi, C. Beck. Evaluation of uptake kinetics during a wastewater diversion into nearshore coastal waters in southern California. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (accepted).

Magrann, T., M.D.A. Howard, S.G. Dunbar, M. Sutula, D.S. Boskovic, W.K. Hayes. 2016. Screening assessment of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in southern California lentic habitats. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development 4(2) ISSN 2164-7682.

Kudela, R.M., A. Bickel, M. Carter, M.D.A. Howard, L. Rosenfeld. 2015. The monitoring of harmful algal blooms through ocean observing: the development of the California Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Alert Program. pp. 58-75 in: Y.

Liu, H. Kerkering, R.H. Weisbert (eds.), Coastal Ocean Observing Systems. Academic Press. Boston, MA.

A.E. Fetscher, M.D.A. Howard, R. Stancheva, R.M. Kudela, E.D. Stein, M.A. Sutula, L.B. Busse, R.G. Sheath. Wadeable streams as widespread sources of benthic cyanotoxins in California, USA. Harmful Algae, 49: 105-116.

Seegers, B.N., J.M. Birch, R. Marin, C.A. Scholin, D.A. Caron, E.L. Seubert, M.D.A. Howard, G.L. Robertson, B.H. Jones. 2015. Subsurface seeding of the surface harmful algal blooms observed through the integration of autonomous gliders, moored environmental samples processors, and satellite remote sensing in southern California. Limnology and Oceanography, 60(3): 754-764.

Howard, M.D.A., M. Sutula, D.A. Caron, Y. Chao, J.D. Farrara, H. Frenzel, B. Jones, G. Robertson, K. McLaughlin, A. Sengupta. 2014. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight. Limnology and Oceanography, 59(1):285-297.

Seubert, E.L., M.D.A. Howard, R.M. Kudela, T.N. Stewart, R.W. Litaker, R. Evans, D.A. Caron. 2014. Development, comparison and validation using ELISAs for the analysis of domoic acid in California sea lion body fluids. Journal of AOAC International, 97(2):345-355. .

Seubert, E., A.G. Gellene, M.D.A. Howard, P. Connell, M. Ragan, B.H. Jones, J. Runyan, D. A. Caron. 2013. Seasonal and annual dynamics of harmful algae and algal toxins revealed through weekly monitoring at two coastal ocean sites off southern California, USA. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20:6878-6895.

Howard, M.D.A., A.C. Jones, A. Schnetzer, P.D. Countway, C.R. Tomas, R.M. Kudela, K. Hayashi, P. Chia, D.A. Caron. 2012. Quantitative real-time PCR for Cochlodinium fulvescens (DINOPHYCEAE), a harmful dinoflagellate from California coastal waters. Journal of Phycology 48:384-393.

Howard, M.D.A., M. Sutula, D. Caron, Y. Chao, J.D. Farrara, H. Frenzel, B. Jones, G. Robertson, K. McLaughlin, and A. Sengupta. 2012. Comparison of natural and anthropogenic nutrient sources in the Southern California Bight. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Annual Report. Costa Mesa, Ca

Sengupta, A., M.A. Sutula, K. McLaughlin, L. Tiefenthaler, T. VonBitner, F.A. Gonzalez, and A. Anslem. 2012. Riverine nutrient loads and fluxes to the Southern California Bight (USA). Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Annual Report. Costa Mesa, Ca.

Howard, M.D.A., A.C. Jones, A. Schnetzer, P.D. Countway, C.R. Tomas, R.M. Kudela, K. Hayashi, P. Chia, D. Caron. 2012. Quantitative real-time PCR for Cochlodinium fulvescens (DINOPHYCEAE), a harmful dinoflagellate from California coastal waters. Journal of Phycology 48:384-393.

Kudela, R.M., M.D.A. Howard, B. Jenkins, P. Miller, and G.J. Smith. 2010. Using the molecular toolbox to compare harmful algal blooms in upwelling systems. Progress in Oceanography 85:108-121.

Smith, R., J. Das, H.K. Heidarsson, P. Arvind, F. Arrichiello, I. Cetinic, L. Darjany, M.È. Garneau, M. Howard, C. Oberg, M. Ragan, E. Seubert, E. Smith, B.A. Stauffer, A. Schnetzer, G. Toro-Farmer, D.A. Caron, B. Jones, and G. Sukhatme. 2010. USC CINAPS Builds Bridges: Observing and Monitoring the Southern California Bight. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine 17:20-30.

Caron, D.A., M.E. Garneau, E. Seubert, M.D.A. Howard, L. Darjany, A. Schnetzer, I. Cetinic, G. Filteau, P. Lauri, B. Jones, and S. Trussell. 2010. Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California. Journal of Water Research 44:385-416.

Howard, M.D., G.J. Smith, and R.M. Kudela. 2009. Phylogenetic Relationships of Yessotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates, Based on the Large Subunit and Internal Transcribed Spacer Ribosomal DNA Domains. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75:54-63.

Howard, M.D., M. Silver, and R.M. Kudela. 2008. Yessotoxin detected in mussel (Mytilus californicus) and phytoplankton samples from the U.S. west coast. Harmful Algae 7:646-652.

Armstrong Howard, M.D., W.P. Cochlan, R.M. Kudela, and N. Ladizinsky. 2007. Nitrogenous preference of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae) from field and laboratory experiments. Harmful Algae 6:206-217.

Armstrong, M. and R. Kudela. 2006. Evaluation of California isolates of Lingulodinium polyedrum for the production of yessotoxin. African Journal of Marine Science 28:399-401.

Kudela, R.M., A. Roberts, and M. Armstrong. 2002. Laboratory analyses of nutrient stress and toxin production in Pseudo-nitzschia spp. from Monterey Bay, California. in: K.A. Steidinger, J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo (eds.), Harmful Algae 2002. Florida and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

TECHNICAL REPORTS:

Howard, M., B. Fetscher, C. Nagoda. 2016. The prevalence of cyanotoxins in southern Caliornia waterbodies based on screening assessments and regional monitoring programs. SCCWRP Technical Report 930, SWAMP-MR-RB9-2016-0005.

Anderson-Abbs, B. M. Howard, K. Taberski, K. Worcester. 2016. California Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms Assessment and Support Strategy. SWAMP Technical Report, SWAMP-SP-SB-2016-0001. http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/sanfranciscobay/water_issues/programs/SWAMP/HABstrategy_phase%201.pdf

Howard, M.D.A., G. Robertson, M. Sutula, B. Jones, N. Nezlin, Y.Chao, H.Frenzel, M. Mengel, D.A. Caron, B. Seegers, A. Sengupta, E. Seubert, D. Diehl and S.B. Weisberg. 2012. Southern California Bight 2008 Regional Monitoring Program: VII. Water Quality. 2012. Technical Report 710. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.

Howard, M.D.A., M. Sutula, D.A. Caron, Y. Chao, J.D. Farrara, H. Frenzel, B. Jones, G. Robertson, K. McLaughlin, A. Sengupta. 2012. Comparison of natural and anthropogenic nutrient sources in the Southern California Bight. pp. 29-48 in: S.B. Weisber and K. Miller (eds.), Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Annual Report 2012. Costa Mesa, CA.

The Second Regional Workshop for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in California Coastal Waters. 2010. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Ocean Science Trust, California Sea Grant, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Technical Report 620. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.

The regional workshop for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in California coastal waters. 2008. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, California Ocean Science Trust and Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Technical Report 565. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.

SELECTED PRESENTATIONS AND CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS:

Howard, M.D.A., C. Nagoda, B. Fetscher, R.M., Kudela, A. Tatters, L. Busse, D. Caron, M. Sutula, E. Stein, J. Brown, C. Loflen. Widespread prevalence of cyanotoxin production and toxin transfer at the land-sea interface in Southern California coastal waterbodies. The 17th International Conference on Harmful Algae, Florianopolis, Brazil.

Howard, M. Inland water quality issues caused by harmful algal blooms in California: Recent events and new monitoring approaches. Western Aquatic Plant Management Conference, San Diego, CA.

Howard, M. New monitoring and assessment approaches for HABs in California. EPA Region 10 HABs Workshop, Seattle, WA.

Howard, M., D. Caron, A. Tatters. Widespread prevalence of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins from a variety of California waterbodies. California Water Quality Monitoring Collaboration Network Webinar. August, 2015.

Howard, M.D.A., C. Nagoda, B. Fetscher, R.M. Kudela, L. Busse, D. Caron, M. Sutula, E. Stein, A. Tatters, J. Brown. Widespread prevalence of microcystins from a variety of southern California waterbodies and implications for toxin loading to coastal waters. Eighth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S., Long Beach, California.

Tatters, A.O., M.D. Howard, C. Nagoda, L. Busse, A.G. Gellene, D.A., Caron. Multiple stressors at the land-sea interface. Eighth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S., Long Beach, California.

Brooks, B. W., J. Lazorchak, M.D.A. Howard, M.V. Johnson, S. Morton, D. Perkins, E. Reavie, G. Scott, S. Smith, J. Steevens, Jeffery. Are Harmful Algal Blooms Becoming the Greatest Inland Water Quality Threat to Public Health and Aquatic Ecosystems? Eighth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S., Long Beach, California.

Caron, D.A., A.O. Tatters, A.G. Gellene, J. Smith, M.D.A. Howard, C. Nagoda, L. Busse. “Go west, young haptophyte”: Fish kills attributable to Prymnesium parvum spread to southern California. Eighth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S., Long Beach, California.

Kudela, R., C. Anderson, J. Birch, H. Bowers, D. Caron, G. Doucette, A. Gellene, K. Hayashi, M. Howard, B. Jones, D. Lucas, J. Ryan, C. Scholin, G.J. Smith, Y. Chao, Realized and potential HAB hotspots along the California coast: What triggers a bloom? Eighth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S., Long Beach, California.

Howard, M.D.A., K. McLaughlin, M. Sutula, D. A. Caron, Y. Chao, H. Frenzel, A. Gellene, K. Hayashi, B. Jones, R.M. Kudela, M.J. Mengel, G. Robertson, A. Senqupta and E. Seubert. 2013. Untangling the effects of anthropogenic versus natural nutrient sources and implications for harmful algal blooms in the Southern California Bight. Proceeding at the Seventh Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S., Sarasota, Florida

Howard, M.D.A., K. McLaughlin, M. Sutula, D. A. Caron, Y. Chao, H. Frenzel, B. Jones, R.M. Kudela, G. Robertson. 2013. Untangling the effects of anthropogenic versus natural nutrient sources in the Southern California Bight. Proceeding at the Twenty-second Biennial Conference of the Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation. San Diego, California.

Howard, M.D.A., B. Jones, G. Robertson, M. Sutula, D.A. Caron, Y. Chao, H. Frenzel, M.J. Mengel, N. Nezlin, B. Seegers, A. Sengupta, E. Seubert. 2012. The Southern California Bight Regional Monitoring Program: Evaluation of anthropogenic and natural nutrient loadings and their effects in the Coastal Southern California Bight. Headwaters to Oceans Conference, San Diego, CA.

Howard, M.D.A., R.M. Kudela, M. Sutula, E. Stein, L. Busse, D. Greenstein, S. Bay, T. Magrann. 2012. The prevalence of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in southern California waterbodies. SETAC North America Thirty-third Annual Meeting. Long Beach, CA.

Howard, M.D.A., R.M. Kudela, M. Sutula, E. Stein, L. Busse, D. Greenstein, S. Bay, T. Magrann. 2012. The prevalence of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in southern California waterbodies. Eighth Annual CASQA Conference, San Diego, CA.

Howard, M.D.A., D.A. Caron, Y. Chao, B.H. Jones, N. Nezlin, G. Robertson, A. Schnetzer, B. Seegers, A. Senqupta, E. Seubert and M. Sutula. 2011. The Southern California Bight (SCB) Regional Monitoring Program: A Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Bust in a Bloom-Ready SCB. Proceeding of the Sixth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S. Austin, Texas.

Kudela, R.M., C. Anderson, D.A. Caron, Y. Chao, M. Howard, B. Jones, H. Kerkering, J.Q. Lane, G. Langlois, B. Penta and I. Shulman. 2011. Development of Predictive Forecast Systems for Pseudo-nitzschia in California. Proceeding at the Sixth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S. Austin, Texas.

Seubert, E.L., A.G. Gellene, M.D.A. Howard, M. Ragan, B.H. Jones and D.A. Caron. 2011. Monitoring of Harmful Algal Bloom Species at Two Piers in the Southern California Bight from 2008-2011. Proceeding of the Sixth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S. Austin, Texas.

Seegers, B., E.L. Seubert, M.D.A. Howard, D.A. Caron and B.H. Jones. 2011. Monitoring Coastal Ocean Dynamics with Gliders and Remote Sensing to Understand the Role of Vertical and Horizontal Advection on Harmful Algal Bloom Initiation. Proceeding of the Sixth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S. Austin, Texas.

Caron, D.A., A. Schnetzer, E.L. Seubert, A. Gellene, B. Jones, M. Ragan, B. Seegers, G. Sukhatme, S. Weisberg, M. Howard, R. Schaffner, L. Palmer, R. Evans and S. Kaveggia. 2011. A Nearly-Decadal Perspective on Pseudo-nitzschia blooms and Domoic Acid Events in Southern Californian Waters. Proceeding of the Sixth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S. Austin, Texas.

Seubert, E.L., M.E. Garneau, M.D.A. Howard, L. Darjany, A. Schnetzer, I. Cetinić, G. Filteau, P. Lauri, B. Jones, S. Trussell, and D.A. Caron. 2010. Implications of Phycotoxins on Seawater Desalination in Southern California. Gordon Research Conference, Oceans and Human Health Gordon Research Conference, Biddeford, ME.

Howard, M.D.A., A.C. Jones, A. Schnetzer, C.R. Tomas, R.M. Kudela, G.J. Smith, P. Chia, and D.A. Caron. 2009. Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Cochlodinium sp., a Potentially Harmful Dinoflagellate from California Coastal Waters. Fifth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S., Ocean Shores, WA.

Hayashi, K. R.M. Kudela, G.J. Smith and M.D.A. Howard. 2009. Regional and Global Phylogenetic Relationships of Cochlodinium fulvescens found in the coastal waters of California. Fifth Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S., Ocean Shores, WA.

Kudela, R.M., M. Armstrong, W.P. Cochlan, and P. Miller. 2006. A role for anthropogenically derived nitrogen in the formation of harmful algal blooms along the U.S. west coast. Presentation at the California and the World Ocean ’06 Conference. Long Beach, CA.

Armstrong, M.D., N. Ladizinsky, W.P. Cochlan, and R.M. Kudela. 2006. Nitrogenous preference of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis from field and laboratory experiments. Presentation at the ASLO/TOS Ocean Sciences Meeting. Honolulu, HI.

Armstrong, M.D. and R.M. Kudela. 2005. The production of yessotoxin in California isolates of Lingulodinium polyedrum. Presentation at the Third Symposium on Harmful Algae in the U.S. Monterey, CA.

Kudela, R., M.D. Armstrong, W. Cochlan, and J. Herndon. 2005. A role for anthropogenically derived nitrogen in the formation of harmful algal blooms along the US west coast. Presentation at the GEOHAB meeting HABs and Eutrophication. Baltimore, MD.

Armstrong, M.D. and R. Kudela. 2004. Evaluation of California isolates of Lingulodinium polyedrum for the production of yessotoxin. Poster presented at the 11th International Harmful Algal Bloom Conference. Capetown, South Africa.

Kudela, R.M., A.E. Roberts, and M.D. Armstrong. 2004. Micrograzer-dilution experiments in the HNLC waters of the Bering Sea: A novel approach to estimating iron stimulation. Poster presented at the ASLO/TOS Ocean Research Conference. Honolulu, HI.

Armstrong, M.D. and R. Kudela. 2003. Nitrogenous preference of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia spp. from enrichment experiments conducted in iron replete and iron deplete regions in central California. Poster presented at the Second Symposium on Harmful Marine Algae in the U.S. Woods Hole, MA.

Lance, V.P., M. Armstrong, J.T. Pennington, Z. Chase, K.S. Johnson, and F.P. Chavez. 2003. Quantum yield of photosynthesis in relation to iron in the California Coastal Upwelling System. Poster presented at the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Science Conference. Washington, DC.

Ahn, M., A. Roberts, M. Armstrong, R. Kudela. 2002. Laboratory analyses of nutrient stress and toxin production in Pseudo-nitzschia spp. from Monterey Bay, California. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Harmful Algae. St. Petersburg, FL.