2003 Bight03 Coastal Ecology Trawl Fish Abundance

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP)
Publication_Date: 20040402
Publication_Time: 20040402
Title: 2003 Bight03 Coastal Ecology Trawl Fish Abundance
Edition: 1.0
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Costa Mesa, California
Publisher:
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP)
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Larger_Work_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator:
Southern California Coastal Water Reserach Project (SCCWRP)
Originator:
Southern California Coastal Water Reserach Project (SCCWRP)
Publication_Date: 20030301
Title: Demersal Fishes and Megabenthic Invertebrates
Edition: 1.0
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Costa Mesa, California
Publisher:
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project (SCCWRP)
Other_Citation_Details:
The proper citation for this report is: Allen, M. J., T. Mikel, D. Cadien, J. E. Kalman, E. T. Jarvis, K. C. Schiff, D. W. Diehl, S. L. Moore, S. Walther, G. Deets, C. Cash, S. Watts, D. J. Pondella II, V. Raco-Rands, C. Thomas, R. Gartman, L. Sabin, W. Power, A. K. Groce, and J. L. Armstrong. 2007. Southern California Bight 2003 Regional Monitoring Program: IV. Demersal Fishes and Megabenthic Invertebrates. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project. Costa Mesa, CA.
Online_Linkage: Add linkage to the report
Description:
Abstract:
The Southern California Bight , an open embayment in the coast between Point Conception and Cape Colnett (south of Ensenada), Baja California, is an important and unique ecological resource. The SCB is a transitional area that is influenced by currents from cold, temperate ocean waters from the north and warm, tropical waters from the south. In addition, the SCB has a complex topography, with offshore islands, submarine canyons, ridges and basins, which provide a variety of habitats. The mixing of currents and the diverse habitats in the SCB allow for the coexistence of a broad spectrum of species, including more than 500 species of fish and several thousand species of invertebrates. The SCB is also a major migration route, with marine bird and mammal populations ranking among the most diverse in north temperate waters. The coastal zone of the SCB is a substantial economic resource. Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor is the largest commercial port in the United States, and San Diego Harbor is home to one of the largest US Naval facilities in the country. More than 100 million people visit southern California beaches and coastal areas annually, bringing an estimated $9B into the economy. Recreational activities include diving, swimming, surfing, and boating, with about 40,000 pleasure boats docked in 13 coastal marinas within the region (NRC 1990). Recreational fishing brings in more than $500M per year. The SCB is one of the most densely populated coastal regions in the country, which creates stress upon its marine environment. Nearly 20 million people inhabit coastal Southern California, a number that is expected to increase another 20% by 2010 (NRC 1990). Population growth generally results in conversion of open land into non-permeable surfaces. More than 75% of southern Californian bays and estuaries have already been dredged and filled for conversion into harbors and marinas (Horn and Allen 1985). This “hardening of the coast” increases the rate of runoff and can impact water quality through addition of sediment, toxic chemicals, pathogens and nutrients to the ocean. Besides the impacts of land conversion, the SCB is already home to fifteen municipal wastewater treatment facilities, eight power generating stations, 10 industrial treatment facilities, and 18 oil platforms that discharge to the open coast. Each year, local, state, and federal agencies spend in excess of $31M to monitor the environmental quality of natural resources in the SCB (Schiff et al 2001). At least 75% of this monitoring is associated with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits and is intended to assess compliance of waste discharge with the California Ocean Plan and the federal Clean Water Act, which set water quality standards for effluent and receiving waters. Some of this information has played a significant role in management decisions in the SCB. While these monitoring programs have provided important information, they were designed to evaluate impacts near individual discharges. Today, resource managers are being encouraged to develop management strategies for the entire SCB. To accomplish this task, they need regionally-based information to assess cumulative impacts of contaminant inputs and to evaluate relative risk among different types of stresses. It is difficult to use existing data to evaluate regional issues because the monitoring was designed to be site-specific and is limited to specific geographic areas. The monitoring provides substantial data for some areas, but there is little or no data for the areas in between. Beyond the spatial limitations, data from these programs are not easily merged to examine relative risk. The parameters measured often differ among programs. Even when the same parameters are measured, the methodologies used to collect the data often differ and interlaboratory quality assurance (QA) exercises to assess data comparability are rare. Previous Regional Monitoring Studies To begin addressing these concerns, there have been two previous regional monitoring efforts. The first regional monitoring survey in 1994, called the Southern California Bight Pilot Project (SCBPP), was a compilation of 12 agencies that cooperatively sampled 261 sites along the continental shelf between Point Conception and the United States/Mexico border. The second regional monitoring survey, called the Southern California Bight 1998 Regional Monitoring Project (Bight’98), was comprised of 64 agencies that cooperatively sampled 416 sites between Point Conception and Punta Banda, Mexico. In both surveys, assessments were made of water quality, sediment contamination, the status of biological resources and species diversity, and the presence of marine debris in depths of 10 to 200m, with some special emphasis in areas of anthropogenic inputs such as large publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) or large river and creek mouths. However, Bight’98 extended what was done in 1994 by adding additional habitats such as offshore islands and inshore areas like bays/harbors, as well as additional areas of anthropogenic inputs such as marinas, ports, and small POTWs. Moreover, a regional evaluation of shoreline water quality was added in 1998 that provided our first evaluation of the swimmability of southern California beaches during dry and wet weather. Benefits derived from both the SCBPP and Bight’98 also included the development of new useful technical tools that could only be developed with regional data sets and participation by multiple organizations. For example, the project produced iron-normalization curves for the SCB, allowing distinction between natural and anthropogenic contributions of metals in sediments (Schiff and Weisberg 1998). A Benthic Response Index was developed that integrates complex benthic infaunal data into an easily interpreted form that describes the degree of perturbation at a site (Bergen et al. 1998). Newer, cheaper microbiological methods were tested and evaluated alongside traditional microbial measurement methods and now have been accepted by both the state health agencies for routine shoreline monitoring (ref). Bight’98 also improved the comparability among the major laboratories in the SCB as a result of the quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) laboratory intercalibration exercises for chemistry and microbiology. The project also produced a series of manuals containing standardized field, laboratory and data management activities that increased continuity of data and data reporting among participants, even after the regional monitoring surveys were completed. 2003 Survey The proposed Southern California Bight 2003 Regional Monitoring Project (Bight’03) is a continuation of the successful cooperative regional-scale monitoring begun in southern California during the 1990’s. Bight’03 builds upon the previous successes and expands on the 1998 survey by including new participants, sampling more habitats, and measuring more parameters or using new methods. [Number] organizations, including international and volunteer organizations, have agreed to participate (Table I-1). The inclusion of multiple participants, many of them new to regional monitoring, provides several benefits. Cooperative interactions among many organizations with different perspectives and interests, including a combination of regulators and dischargers, ensures that an appropriate set of regional-scale questions will be addressed by the study. The additional resources brought by numerous participants also expands the number of habitats and indicators that will be sampled. Sampling for Bight’03 will include all of the areas sampled in 1998, plus a new focus on nearshore habitats (coastal lagoons) and offshore habitats (inner continental slopes and basins). Several new technologies will be brought to bear in Bight’03 including remote sensing from satellite, aerial, and land-based platforms, new microbial genetic and phenotypic source tracking techniques, and radiodating of sediments to determine age and accumulation of chemicals in sediments.
Purpose:
The overall goal of the coastal ecology component of Bight’03 is to assess the condition of the bottom environment and the health of the biological resources in the SCB. To accomplish this goal, Bight’03 will focus on two primary objectives: 1.Estimate the extent and magnitude of ecological change in the SCB, 2.Determine the mass balance of pollutants that currently reside within the SCB. The first objective, estimating the amount of area (i.e., number of acres) in the SCB that ecological conditions differ from reference conditions, is a departure from traditional approaches to environmental monitoring, which generally focus on estimating average condition. Estimating the areal extent of ecological change offers several advantages. First, it provides a more direct assessment of status. For instance, identifying that the average concentration of dissolved oxygen in the Bight is 6.7 ppm provides less useful information for environmental managers than does identifying what percentage of the area in the Bight fails to meet water quality standards. A second advantage of estimating areal extent concerns trend detection. If conditions in the Bight change over time such that some areas improve and others worsen, the average condition might not change. By estimating the areal extent of alteration, we will be better able to describe these changes. There are two subobjectives within the areal extent and magnitude objective. The first subobjective is to determine if the areal extent and magnitude vary among geographic regions. If we answer this question, then managers can determine if specific areas are in worse condition than others, such as areas near anthropogenic inputs versus those areas distant from inputs. Therefore, Bight’03 will compare condition among 11 geographic areas of interest (Table II-1). These subpopulations of our study area were selected to represent a range of natural and potentially affected habitats, and include all of the habitats sampled in 1998. There are three new habitats to be sampled in Bight’03. The first two are located offshore of previously sampled habitats; the upper continental slope (200-500m) and the lower slope and inner basin (500-1000m). The break in deep water strata is a reflection of an ecotone between upper slope and lower slope biological communities. The third habitat is inshore of previous sampled habitats and includes coastal lagoons. Comparison of the relative condition among strata not only provides information about the geographic distribution of impacts, it also allows comparison of relative risk from a variety of point and non-point source discharges. Comparison of conditions may be conducted by comparing the extent of area exceeding a threshold of concern or by comparison of mean condition. The second subobjective within the areal extent and magnitude objective is assessing the relationship between biological responses and contaminant exposure. Such associations provide the information necessary for risk assessment, and for developing efficient regional strategies for protecting the environment by identifying the predominant types of stress in the SCB ecosystem. Therefore, this subobjective will be accomplished by simultaneously collecting numerous measures of biological response, contaminant exposure and habitat condition (Table II-2) to better identify when exposure has reached a level of concern. Measuring multiple indicators also permits us to identify the most likely type of exposure leading to biological response. The second primary objective will create a mass balance of contaminants in the SCB. This objective recognizes that local monitoring programs only address a portion of what is discharged to the SCB and that contaminant inputs to the SCB are cumulative both among sources and over time. Ultimately, both environmental managers and the public want to know what fraction of the contaminants that are discharged remain in the SCB and what fraction leaves the SCB. Therefore, Bight’03 will create an inventory of contaminants that reside in the SCB in sediment, water column, and biological compartments. The total mass of contaminants in these compartments will be compared to estimates of mass discharged from land based activities. Understanding how much mass is in the SCB will require some new measurements including measurements of not just sediment chemistry, but estimates of accumulation rates in sediments, as well as new measurements in the water column.
Supplemental_Information:
This metadata is based on the collected data. the Bight '03 Trawl Report is based on a modified database as created by the trawl Committee. Contact Dr. M. James Allen with any questions regarding thenTrawl report of modify data.The full text of the Field Methods Document may be obtained from http://www.sccwrp.org/regional/03bight/03docs.html Demersal fish and megabenthic invertebrate assemblages: Demersal fish and megabenthic invertebrates are more mobile than the benthic infauna, but are still closely associated with the bottom and chronically exposed to sediment contaminants. Demersal fish and megabenthic invertebrates will be collected with a semiballoon otter trawl with 7.6-m headrope length and a 1.3 cm cod-end mesh. Trawls will be towed for 10 min at 0.8-1.0 m/s along depth isobaths (5 min in harbors). All fish and most invertebrates will be identified to species, counted, and weighed. Gross fish pathology: The presence and extent of external diseases (e.g. fin rot and tumors) and anomalies (e.g. skeletal deformities or abnormal coloration) will be recorded from fish collected in the trawls for assemblage analysis. Xpecimens with unusual or unidentified conditions will be returned to the laboratory for detailed examination.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 20030717
Ending_Date: 20040903
Currentness_Reference: ground condition
Status:
Progress: COMPLETE
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As Needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Southern California Bight
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -120.458
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -117.11635
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 34.46549
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 32.54554
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword: Southern California Bight
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword: Sourthern California Bight
Place_Keyword: California
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints: Dataset credit required
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Information Systems Manager
Contact_Organization:
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project
(SCCWRP)
Contact_Position: Information Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: physical address
Address: 3535 Harbor Blvd. Suite 110
City: Costa Mesa
State_or_Province: California
Postal_Code: 92626
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 714.755.3200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 714.755.3299
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: im_contact@sccwrp.org
Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday Through Friday
Contact_Instructions: email preferred
Data_Set_Credit: Bight03 Participants
Native_Data_Set_Environment: Microsoft Access Version 2000


Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Coordinates accurate to within 100 ft
Logical_Consistency_Report:
The tables may be related by the StationID field or the SampleID field where applicable.
Completeness_Report:
The following stations were abandoned: StationID FailureReason Comments 4010 Obstructions Station is under a marina, we couldn't get within 420 m of the site. 4016 Comment Required Permission not granted by Camp Pendleton to trawl in harbor because of underwater cables 4018 Obstructions Cannot get within 100 m of site it is located under the docks in Alamitos Bay 4020 Comment Required Depth along trawl track >10% 4022 Rocky Bottom Too rocky to trawl 4023 Rocky Bottom Three fathometer runs each showed rocky bottom. 4024 No Failure site was abandoned because near canyon. The boat bathymetery was up and down. 4044 Obstructions Inside sub base, Can't access 4052 Obstructions Station located on land in Marina. Can sample benthics within 100 m, however, marina channel is to narrow to safely trawl. 4059 Torn Net Torn net due to obstructions on ocean floor. 4067 Torn Net Torn net due to obstructions on ocean floor. 4069 Kelp Bed Due to kelp beds cannot approach within 100m of coords 4076 Obstructions Station within San Diego Yacht Club Marina. Too narrow to trawl 4084 Obstructions Ships, piers in navy site, no clear track, moving station 100m, still no room for trawl 4089 Rocky Bottom Too rocky to trawl 4093 Not within 10% of Target Site Depth 10% depth rule could not be met 4103 Rocky Bottom Three fathometer runs each showed rocky bottom. 4108 Obstructions Next to Broadway pier. Not enough room to trawl. No clear trawl track. Depth near station varies by more than 10% 4111 Rocky Bottom Three fathometer runs each showed rocky bottom. 4126 No Failure Abandon site due to coral reef. 4139 Obstructions Site located on the inside of the south Ventura Harbor jetty.Both grabs and trawls unsafe due to boat traffic and public recreation. 4140 Obstructions In the middle of the Bay Club Hotel Marina 4146 Irregular Bottom depth differential greater than 10% and hump in trawl line. 4147 Obstructions Net torn; board broken on first trawl 4167 Obstructions Doors, lotek, & net lost due to obstructions on ocean floor. 4169 Fouled Net Net and boards lost, snagged on rocks. 4175 Kelp Bed Kelp Bed, heavy oil slick 4178 Obstructions Station on Beach could not get within 1.4 km of target 4185 Comment Required crab traps as cause of failures 4192 No Failure site is on series of reefs with heavy kelp. 4195 Rocky Bottom Three fathometer runs each showed rocky bottom. 4226 Obstructions Hard bottom, Structure off edge of oil Island- Station too close to oil Island 4247 Rocky Bottom Reef in all locations. Past experience with lost trawl nets on same tracks. Total of 6 grabs attempted with no luck. 4251 Torn Net Torn net due to obstructions on ocean floor. 4266 Obstructions Obstructions/obstacles on trawl route bottom 4278 Rocky Bottom Net snagged on bottom and ripped in half 4292 Kelp Bed Kelp bed w/in 1/2 mi. radius around site. Depth 21 m 4297 Fouled Net Floats crushed. Abandon station. 4301 Comment Required High relief and crab traps 4332 Obstructions Station is right in the midst of wreck alley near an old navy tower. Lg. tower-like obstruction seen in mulit. Approaches to the station. 4358 Rocky Bottom Too rocky to trawl 4375 Comment Required 1 hour spent attempting grabs with no luck. Reef throughout area. No good trawl tracks found. Nets lost in area on previous surveys. 4378 Rocky Bottom Unable to locate trawlable track free of rocky outcropping. 4379 Rocky Bottom Three fathometer runs each showed rocky bottom. 4382 Comment Required Based on investigation of site during benthic sampling, it was determined that site is outside depth limit of stratum. Unable to locate trawl track within 100 m of target coordinates and within 10% of the 500 m stratum depth limit. 4386 Obstructions Station is proximate to the dock, could get to within 90 m but with SW wind and boat traffic was unsafe. The captain made the decision that it was not safe to trawl this site. 4388 Rocky Bottom Rocky bottom 4424 Obstructions On beach- couldn't get within 240 m of target, also vessel was directly offshore of Alamitos Bay fuel dock. 4425 Rocky Bottom Three fathometer runs each showed rocky bottom. 4442 Comment Required Station depth during a 1.3 m tide is 2.1 m. Unable to find a 3.0 m depth within 100 m of station. Also, station is located 50 m into a No Powerboat Zone. 4510 No Failure " bottom was full of metal debris which ripped up the net." 4512 Rocky Bottom Too rocky to trawl 4575 Rocky Bottom Snagged and tore net 1ft diameter rocks in net
Lineage:
Methodology:
Methodology_Type: Field
Methodology_Description:
Identification The goal is to provide Xpecies-level identifications for all fish and invertebrates captured in the trawl. Most, if not all, of the trawl-caught organisms should be identifiable to Xpecies in the field using the recommended taxonomic keys and field guides. Xpecies of fish and invertebrates that cannot be reliably identified to Xpecies in the field should be returned to the laboratory for further identification. In these instances, it is better that the field crew recognize their taxonomic limitations, record "FID" (further identification) on the field sheet and include descriptions of any attributes that may later aid in the identification of that xpecimen. Under no circumstances should an organism be discarded if the identity is in question. When the FID organisms have finally been identified, the correct identity of the Xpecies should be recorded on the original data sheet. If the laboratory identity differs from that recorded in the field, the original name should be crossed out with a single line only; do not erase the original name. If a xpecimen cannot be identified by the sampling organization, it will be sent to SCCWRP for further analysis. Although all fish collected during Bight’03 will be identified to the lowest possible taxon (either in the field or in the laboratory), only certain trawl-caught invertebrates meeting very specific criteria will need to be identified to that level. There are likely to be many small infaunal and pelagic Xpecies that will be taken incidental to the trawl catch. These need not be processed or documented. Only epibenthic invertebrate organisms greater than 1 cm in any dimension will be included in the data. Colonial and pelagic organisms will be noted, but do not need to be enumerated. The presence of obvious fish parasites, such as leeches or cymothoid isopods, should be noted. A recommended list of field guides and taxonomic aids for identifying fish and invertebrates will be distributed to all of the participating organizations prior to the survey. The most basic and comprehensive guides for fish are Miller and Lea (1972) and Eschmeyer et al. (1983). Allen (1977) provides information for identifying juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.), while Orr et al. (2000) and Love et al. (2002) provide keys to larger rockfishes. Kramer et al. (1995) provides information for identifying flatfishes. Generally, there are no widely comprehensive guides to the epibenthic invertebrates. Either common or scientific names of fish may be used in the field, however, in the case of invertebrates, only scientific names are permissible. Use standard common and scientific names of fishes and scientific names of invertebrates given in a list of trawl-caught Xpecies of fishes and invertebrates in southern California that have been distributed to organizations prior to the survey. For Xpecies not in these lists, use only standard common and scientific names of fishes given in Robins et al. (1991), or scientific names of fishes from Eschmeyer (1998), and common names of invertebrates from SCAMIT (2001). For every Xpecies caught, each organization will provide at least one representative of that Xpecies to the Bight'03 voucher collection (see Voucher Collection) Each organization should have a kit containing a variety of tools which will aid in field identification. The kit should include forceps (small with sharp points and large with blunt points), a hand lens, dividers or calipers, dissecting needles, scalpels with scalpel blades, probes, and plastic rulers (marked in millimeters). Length Measurement All fish Xpecies will either be measured on measuring boards or, for very large xpecimens, by a meter stick or tape measure. A measuring board typically consists of either a flat or trough shaped board with a part of a meter stick running down the middle. A smaller board (cross board) is attached across the zero-end of the meter stick. Centimeter size-xlasses are marked along the side of the measuring board with the number of the size xlass marked next to the appropriate centimeter. When measuring a fish, the head should be pushed against the cross board at the zero-end of the measuring board. Standard length in bony fishes is obtained by measuring from the anterior tip of the head to the posterior end of the caudal peduncle, located slightly anterior of the externally visible origin of the caudal fin rays. Bending the tail laterally upwards and noting the point of sharp flexure can most closely approximate where standard length is measured (Figure 7). Total length will be measured for all cartilaginous fishes. Wingspan will be measured in addition to total length for stingrays because the tips of their tails are frequently broken off (Figure 8). The length of all fish xpecimens will be reported in size xlasses of 1 cm intervals (Mearns and Allen 1978). The first centimeter size xlass (size xlass number 1) extends from >0 to 1.0 cm; size xlass 2 extends from >1.0 to 2.0 cm, and so forth (Figure 9). All Xpecies will be recorded on the Trawl Fish Xpecies Data Sheet, or Trawl Invertebrate Xpecies Data Sheet (Appendix 6). For fish Xpecies with 10 or fewer individuals, each size xlass measurement will be recorded on the Trawl Fish Xpecies Data Sheet, separated by commas. For Xpecies with more than 10 individuals, the Xpecies identifications and totals are listed on the data sheet, but the individual sizes are tallied on a separate Fish Size-Xlass Data Sheet (Appendix 6). An attempt should be made to size-xlass all fish. For the rare occasions when size xlassing is not possible (e.g., a huge catch of a single Xpecies), a subsample of several hundred fish should be measured. When this occurs, the reason should be noted on the data sheet. (Note: Catches of greater than 2,300 individuals of a single Xpecies have been measured in past surveys). FIGURE 7. Endpoints for Standard Length (SL) and Total Length (TL) for bony fish. FIGURE 8. Endpoints for Wingspan (WS), Standard Length (SL), and Total Length for measuring the length of bony and cartilaginous fishes. FIGURE 9. Relationship of centimeter size xlasses to millimeter values using centimeter and millimeter marks on a meter stick where size xlass 20 is defined as 19.1 to 20.0 mm. Weighing Weight data collected from fish and invertebrate Xpecies will be used to estimate the total biomass of the catch and for each Xpecies where practical. Each organization should have a range of spring scales that are capable of weighing to the nearest 0.1 kg. The scales should be calibrated at the start of each trawling day using a standard set of at least three weights. Weighing will be done using a pre-weighed tare bucket, or another suitable container (e.g., plastic net bags). If a tare bucket is used, the bottom should have many holes drilled through it to allow any excess liquid to drain off before the weight is recorded. Tare buckets should be washed periodically to remove the accumulated slime. The total biomass of each Xpecies will be measured with a spring scale. Xpecies with a biomass greater than 0.1 kg will be recorded to the nearest 0.1 kg. The tare container weight will be subtracted from the gross weight (Xpecies plus tare container) to give the weight of the Xpecies (net weight). Tare and gross weight can be recorded on the data sheet but are not required. Small Xpecies weighing less than 0.1 kg will be recorded as <0.1 kg. These will be set aside and weighed together to provide a composite weight. Composite weights greater than 0.1 kg will be recorded to the nearest 0.1 kg. Composite weights of less than 0.1 kg will not be rounded; they are to be recorded as <0.1 kg. There will be one composite weight for fish and one composite weight for invertebrates. These weights will assist in calculating the total biomass of the catch. Large organisms may be weighed individually. Individual weights of smaller xpecimens may also be collected using a range of scales capable of weighing to the nearest 0.1 g. Enumeration Fish are enumerated while measuring them. The total number of each Xpecies (including size-xlassed Xpecies) should be recorded on not only the Fish Xpecies Data Sheet, but also the Fish Size-Xlass Data Sheets for Xpecies represented by more than 10 individuals. Most invertebrates will be enumerated following identification. However, the number of individuals in particularly abundant Xpecies may be estimated from the total biomass of the Xpecies at a later time. First, the number of individuals that comprise a minimal weight can be used to provide a "number of individuals per kilogram" coefficient. The total biomass of a Xpecies divided by the number of individuals per kilogram yields the total number of individuals in the sample. The aliquot of xpecimens that will be used to determine weight for a Xpecies should be sufficiently large (e.g., several kilograms) so that it falls within the mid to upper range of the spring scale being used; this prevents the inherent inaccuracy of the spring scale at the low end from being multiplied throughout the entire biomass calculation. Examination for Gross Pathology During the identification and measurement procedures, fish and invertebrates will be examined for gross pathology. This entails a scan of an individual organism for anomalies and noting the type of pathology (by abbreviation) next to the length of organisms (for fish) during measurement on the appropriate data sheet. The following anomalies will be noted for fish: 1) fin erosion 2) tail erosion 3) tumors 4) external parasites (e.g., copepods, isopods, leeches) 5) eye parasites (i.e. Phrixocephalus) 6) color anomalies (ambicoloration, albinism) (Mearns and Haaker 1973) 7) skeletal deformities (Valentine 1975) 8) lesions 9) other anomalies An observation should be noted next to the individual length on the Fish Xpecies Data Sheet and described in the comments section. For invertebrates, burnspots, parasites, and other anomalies will be noted in the comment section of the Trawl Invertebrate Xpecies Sheet (Appendix 6). Fin erosion can be found on the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins of flatfishes, and on the lower caudal fin and pelvic fins of bilaterally symmetrical fishes. Tail erosion occurs on the top and bottom of the caudal fin or along the entire posterior caudal fin of bilaterally symmetrical fishes. Tumors can be smooth and rounded (angioepithelial nodules) or furrowed (epidermal papillomas). Externally obvious copepod parasites occur on the eye, fins, or body of fish. Cymothoid isopods occur in the gill cavities of fish or on the body; they often fall off. Leeches occur on the body of some flatfishes. Skeletal deformities include crooked backs, snub noses, or bent fin rays. Lesions include sores that do not appear to be caused by net damage. Burnspot disease is found on crabs and some shrimps; its lesions resemble cigarette burns. Parasites of invertebrates include bopyrid isopod parasites of shrimp. Representatives of fish and invertebrates exhibiting each new instance of disease or which have a different parasite should be returned to the laboratory and vouchered. Processing Stage Monitoring Accidental omissions can occasionally be made if a bucket of organisms is not processed. This can be avoided by attaching a colored rubber tag (made of a square with a slit in one side) to the handle of each bucket to indicate a particular stage of processing. For instance, different tags can represent that the bucket is ready for identification, measurement, weighing, preservation, or discarding. As the bucket progresses to the next stage, the current tag can be pulled off and a new tag can be added. This procedure is not necessary for small catches but may be helpful when catches are large. Tags with commonly caught Xpecies names can also be temporarily attached to buckets to facilitate sorting and processing. Safe Handling of Organisms Field personnel are likely to encounter a variety of organisms that are potentially harmful. California scorpionfish (Scorpaena guttata) have venomous fin spines that can cause severe pain. This Xpecies should be handled with leather gloves and/or pliers. Hot water, meat tenderizer or ammonia should be applied to any puncture wound inflicted by this fish; heat is useful in breaking down the protein in the venom. Several Xpecies of rockfishes and the spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) also have mildly venomous spines which can cause a burning sensation. The round sting ray (Urobatis halleri), the California butterfly ray (Gymnura marmorata), and the bat ray (Myliobatis californica) all have venomous spines on their tails. The Pacific electric ray (Torpedo californica) can emit a very strong electric shock. If you must handle this Xpecies, wear rubber gloves and hold it by the tail. Do not grasp the disk with both hands! Pacific angel sharks (Squatina californica), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), spotted ratfish, Pacific electric rays, and California halibut (Paralichthys californicus) all have sharp teeth that can result in painful bites if they are not handled properly. Care must also be taken in handling the blueleg mantis shrimp (Hemisquilla ensigera). This Xpecies is capable of severely cutting a person with its raptorial appendages. Care should also be taken in handling any of the large crabs and octopus. Preservation of Xpecimens Voucher xpecimens, incompletely identified fish and invertebrate xpecimens, and those with diseases that require further examination should be returned to the laboratory. Fish and invertebrate xpecimens may be preserved or documented for QC or identification purposes in one of three ways: 1) fixing in buffered formalin-seawater; 2) freezing; 3) photographing. However, all such xpecimens should be fixed in buffered formalin-seawater unless they are absolutely too large for preservation in this manner in the field. The preferred method for preserving small xpecimens is to fix them in 10% buffered formalin-seawater. Xpecimens with fin erosion, tumors, or lesions will be fixed in this manner. Buffered formalin is made by mixing 50 g Na2B4O7 (sodium borate) per liter of formaldehyde or 5 g per liter of 10% formalin. The body cavities of fish greater than 60 mm in length should be slit with a scalpel on the right (for most bilaterally symmetrical fish), the blind side (for flatfish), or ventral side (for dorsoventrally flattened fish, such as rays) before the xpecimen is placed in formalin. The slit allows preservative to enter the body cavity and preserve the internal organs. Note that by convention, bilaterally symmetrical fish are photographed or drawn with their heads facing left and dissections or gut cavity incisions are conducted only on the right side of the fish. Fish and invertebrates will be placed in plastic bags or plastic jars and fixed in 10% buffered formalin-seawater. Fish should be inserted tail-first into jars so that they can be removed easily without destroying the fin rays or spines. Fish should remain in formalin for no more than a week before being transferred to a freshwater bath. It is recommended that fish xpecimens soak in the water for at least two days. The water should be changed at least once during that period. The fish should then be transferred to a solution of 50% isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol), or 70% ethanol for preservation. Trawl-caught invertebrates will also be fixed in 10% buffered formalin-seawater and preserved in 70% ethanol. Voucher xpecimens should not be submitted to SCCWRP until they have been transferred to alcohol. Larger xpecimens can be placed in plastic bags and frozen on dry ice if excessively large quantities of formalin would be required to fix the xpecimen in the field. These can then be thawed and fixed in the laboratory with a 10% buffered formalin solution. If possible, large xpecimens with tumors, fin erosion, or lesions should be fixed in the field with formalin rather than frozen. Do not freeze xpecimens that can otherwise be preserved in the field in formalin-seawater. Small invertebrates (e.g., nudibranchs) may be kept cold in seawater and returned alive to the lab for identification. Only large xpecimens of fish and invertebrates can be vouchered in the field by photographing them in color. If a photograph is used for a voucher of a Xpecies, it should show the overall appearance of the xpecimen, and all important identifying features. If characters necessary for the identification of a Xpecies cannot be seen in the photograph, the photograph will not be accepted as a voucher. Colorful fishes may also be photographed in addition to providing a preserved xpecimen to aid in identification of the voucher. Photographs of unidentified rockfishes, in particular, should be taken as soon as possible after capture because their color, which is an important taxonomic character, fades during preservation. Bilaterally symmetrical fish and dorsoventrally flattened fish (skates, rays) should be photographed facing left. Flatfish should be photographed with the eyed side up. The left-eyed Xpecies should be photographed facing to the left and the right-eyed Xpecies should face to the right (Note: The gill cover should cut the lower profile of the body). If an anomaly or important character occurs on the opposite side of the recommended profile for a particular type of fish, a photo should also be taken of the afflicted side. All xpecimens should be photographed on a light background with a meter stick along side and a label giving date, station number, and Xpecies in large bold letters. Notes should be made of character states that can aid in identification (e.g., counts of fin rays, gill rakers, and scales). Xpecimens preserved for further identification must be noted on the field data sheet. Note whether the organism is fixed, frozen, or photographed. A photograph log should be kept during the survey, documenting Xpecies name, the frame number, the date and the station location of each photograph.
Process_Step:
Process_Description: All data was processed through QA procedures.
Process_Date: 20040903

Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:

Spatial_Reference_Information:
Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:
Geographic:
Latitude_Resolution: .0001
Longitude_Resolution: .0001
Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees
Geodetic_Model:
Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1983
Ellipsoid_Name: Geodedic Reference System 80
Semi-major_Axis: 6378137
Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio:
298.257 4.2.2.1 Depth Datum Name:


Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Detailed_Description:
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Abundance
Attribute_Definition: The number of fish in the size class.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 725
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SampleDate
Attribute_Definition:
The date the sample was taken expressed as dd-mmm-yyyy.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 20030717
Range_Domain_Maximum: 20040903
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SizeClass
Attribute_Definition:
The size class into which the fish falls expressed in cm.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 105
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SamplingOrganization
Attribute_Definition: From luList01_AgencyCodes.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: luList01_AgencyCodes
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: A list of participating agencies
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: SampleID
Attribute_Definition: The laboratory internal sample identifier.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Lab sampleID
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: BodyLocation
Attribute_Definition: From luList29_FishBodyLocations.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: luList29_FishBodyLocations
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Fish Body Locations
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: StationID
Attribute_Definition:
A geographic location label from the station table.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: tblStations
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: The official station list
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: AbundanceQualifier
Attribute_Definition:
Any necessary qualifier from luList11_QualifierCodes.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: luList11_QualifierCodes
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Qualifier Codes
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: TrawlNumber
Attribute_Definition:
The sequential number of the the trawl taken at the station.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Range_Domain:
Range_Domain_Minimum: 1
Range_Domain_Maximum: 3
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Anomaly
Attribute_Definition:
Any present anomaly of combination of anomalies from luList22_TrawlFishAnomalies.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: luList22_TrawlFishAnomalies
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Trawl Fish Anomalies
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Species
Attribute_Definition:
The species being measured from luList09_SpeciesList.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Enumerated_Domain:
Enumerated_Domain_Value: luList09_SpeciesList
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition: Species List
Enumerated_Domain_Value_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Entity_Type:
Entity_Type_Label: tblTrawlFishAbundance
Entity_Type_Definition: TABLE
Entity_Type_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute:
Attribute_Label: Comments
Attribute_Definition: Additional remarks.
Attribute_Definition_Source: Bight03 Information Management Plan
Attribute_Domain_Values:
Unrepresentable_Domain: Additional Remarks

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Information Systems Manager
Contact_Organization:
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project
(SCCWRP)
Contact_Position: Information Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing address
Address: 3535 Harbor Blvd. Suite 110
City: Costa Mesa
State_or_Province: California
Postal_Code: 92626
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 714.755.3200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 714.438.1016
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: im_contact@sccwrp.org
Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday Through Friday
Contact_Instructions: email preferred
Distribution_Liability:
Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at SCCWRP, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the accuracy or utility of the data on any other system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from a MLML server, and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. It is also strongly recommended that careful attention be paid to the contents of the metadata file associated with these data. MLML shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 20040315
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Information Systems Manager
Contact_Organization:
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project
(SCCWRP)
Contact_Position: Information Manager
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: physical address
Address: 3535 Harbor Blvd. Suite 110
City: Costa Mesa
State_or_Province: California
Postal_Code: 92626
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 714.755.3200
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: 714.755.3299
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: im_contact@sccwrp.org
Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday Through Friday
Contact_Instructions: email preferred
Metadata_Standard_Name:
NBII Content Standard for National Biological Information Infrastructure Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: December 1985
Metadata_Time_Convention: Local Time
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints: None
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: None

Generated by mp on Tue Mar 20 13:42:33 2007